高考辅导

英语阅读理解的几个注意事项

在英语学习中,阅读理解题是让很多学生头疼的事。多数教师都认为阅读题不会做是因为学生没有把文章读懂。然而我们总能听到很多学生委屈地抱怨说“明明读懂了,可仍然做不对题”。这是为什么呢?连很多老师都感到迷惑不解。笔者通过在教学中对学生们经常出错的题目进行分析,发现在做阅读题的时候除了理解文章以外还应该掌握以下几点:

  一、要注意题干中的“BECAUSE”。尤其是选项中出现多种“原因”时,一定要选择其中的“直接原因”或“根本原因”。

  In 1965 there was little stealing during the darkness, and fewer than 100 people were caught by the police. In 1977, nearly 400 people were sent to the police but far more disappeared into the darkness of the night. The number of policemen at hand was far from enough and they were wisely stopped from using their guns against the mobs that were far more than them and that included armed men.

  Question: In 1977 many mobs managed to escape the police because_______.

  A.the police could not see them in the darkness

  B.many of them carried guns

  C.there were not enough policemen to catch them all

  D.they were hidden inside big building

  在被调查的学生中大多数能排除B、D两项。选A的为52%,选C的占37%。可以说A、C两种原因均可能导致“暴徒逃走”。学生的选择有一定的道理。但哪个是直接原因呢?实际上原文中告诉我们黑暗中已经有400人被捕了,这说明“黑暗”并不是“暴徒逃走”的原因了。因此直接原因是警察人手太少。正确答案为C。

  二、要注意题干中的“INFER”。如果题干中有这个单词,一般来说应该排除选项中那些在文章中出现过的句子。因为题目要求你从文章中“推断”出某一结论。那说明这一结论不是文章中存在的。

  The speed which an animal lives is determined by measuring the rate at which it uses oxygen. A chicken, for example, uses one-half cubic centimeter of oxygen every hour for each gram it weighs. The tiny shrew-mouse uses four cubic centimeters of oxygen every hour for each gram it weighs, Because it uses oxygen eight times as fast, it is said that the shrew-mouse is living eight times as fast as the chicken. The smallest of the warm-blooede animals, the humming bird, lives a hundred times as fast as an elephant. There is a limit to how small a warm-blooded animal can be. A mammal or bird that weighed only two and a half grams would starve to death.

  Question: Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

  A.There is no limit as to how large a warm-blooded animal can be.

  B.The humming bird lives faster than any other warm-blooded animal.

  C.Small animals have less skin for their body weight than large ones.

  D.The humming bird is the smallest of the warm-blooded animals.

  A、C两项应该排除,大部分同学能走对第一步。结果选B的为20%,选D的占了62%。通过调查同学们反映“只是粗看了一下题目,以为让选正确的一项,而D是文章中的原话不会错就选了它”。实际上题目却是要读者根据原文推断出正确选项。从文中我们可以看出动物的生长和它的耗氧量有关,而耗氧量又和它们的体重有关,这就可以得出正确的答案应该为B了。

  三、要注意题干中的“TITLE”。这样的题目是要求学生为文章选择标题。标题的选择要遵循“精、准、全”三原则。“精”是指要用精炼的语言概括出文章的中心;“准”是指标题的选择要注意文章的外延和内涵,把作者的观点准确地表达出来;“全”是指标题的选择应该排除掉那些片面的选项,而选取能包含文章的主要内容及作者要表达的观点的选项。

  Calgary, a tourist center in Canada, is said to be a city with best smells. The secret lies in two things: strict laws and good official workers. About 50 people work in a special way. They walk about the city, smelling everywhere. Hardly any smell escapes their noses, for their noses are much better than machines. Once every two weeks, the smellers reported to the government. If a factory is reported to be bad-smelled, it has no choice but to chose unless it makes its smell nice in a week's time.

  Question: The best title for this passage is________.

  A.Special Workers   B.A Good-Smelling City

  C.A Tourist Center  D.Strict Laws

  可以说A、B、C、D均符合“精”的原则,没有赘语。但是A、D明显不符合“准”“全”的原则;实际考查中同学们选B和选C的分别为43%和45%。可以说不相上下。要从B、C中选出正确答案我们不妨逆向思维一下:假定题目给定为C,我们应该写一篇全方位介绍旅游中心的文章,而不是上面的这段文字了,也就是说C项定的范围太广了。因为这篇文章一直都是围绕着“Good Smelling”来写的,B项完全符合“精”“准”“全”三原则,因此是最佳选项。

  四、要注意选项中的多选项。很多学生只要一见到有“Both A and B”“All above”之类的就不加思考地选上了,还以为上了“双保险”肯定错不了。实际上遇到此类题更需要我们认真分析,否则会上大当的。

  Sleep puzzles science. Scientists and doctors would rather talk about why one can't fall asleep. They are not sure what cause sleep.

  Question: Sleep puzzles scientists because they are not certain_______.

  A.why one can't fall asleep

  B.why one wakes up

  C.both A and B

  D.what causes sleep

  尽管文章最后一句话已给给出了正确信息但仍有40%的被调查者选了C。选D的占52%。可见有不少同学迷信“双保险”。从文章中可以看出科学家宁愿谈论人们睡不着的原因,说明他们对这个问题是有把握的。因此“D”为正确答案。

  巩固练习

  (1)… The example of Cubatao shows that international companies are not acting in a responsible way either. A number of the factories in the town ard owned by large companies from France, Italy, and the U.S.They ard doing things in Brazil that they would not be able to do at home. If they caused the same amount of pollution at home, they would be severely punished or even put out of business.

  Question: Some foreign companies like to set up their plant in Brazil because they______.

  A.think Brazil is suitable for them to invest in

  B.will not be severely punished if they cause pollution in Brazil

  C.can make much money and they do not have to pay Brazilian workers much

  D.can act in an irresponsible way in Brazil where there are no pollution laws

  (2)… We always seem to find something funny and amusing in incidents caused by people's forgetfulness or absent-mindedness. Stories about absent-minded professors have been told for years, and we never get tired of hearing new ones. Unfortunately, however, absent-mindedness is not always funny. There are times when “tricks”of our memory can cause us great trouble.

  Question: From the sentence “we never get tired of hearing new ones” we can infer that________.

  A.we enjoy hearing new stories about absent-mindedness of professors

  B.we don't want to know anything more about absent-mindedness of professors

  C.we will never get tired of listening to new stories about absent-mindedness

  D.absent-mindedness happens not only to professors but to many other people

  (3)… When coffee arrives at an instant coffee factory, it has already been roasted and ground. In the factory through several processes we get strong “coffee liquor”. To make instant coffee powder, the coffee liquor is poured through large cylindrical driers at a temperature of 250℃. Granulated coffee is made by freeze-drying. The process is a secret one and is passed from one family of makers to the next…

  Question; The best title for this passage is_______.

  A.Instant Coffee  B.Coffee Powder  C.Coffee Factories  D.Coffee Products

  (4)… With the development of material prosperity, advertisement has become more and more important in our daily life. Advertisement has its advantages and disadvantages. Actually, every coin has two sides. Advertising is without exception. But in today's world, advertising is not only necessary but also helpful.

  Question: The writer's attitude towards advertising is that________.

  A.he is against it  B.he stands for it

  C.both A and B  D.we are not told

  参考答案:

  (1)B  干扰项为:A

  (2)D  干扰项为:C

  (3)A  干扰项为:D

  (4)B  干扰项为:C

学校推荐
    友情链接